String Formatting In JavaScript

format strings js

In this JS tutorial, you will learn string formatting in JavaScript or how to format strings in javascript.

All you need to do is to join two strings or to join a string and a number by the following 3 methods.

3 simple ways of string formatting in JavaScript.

  1. string concatenation (+) 
  2. backticks (` `) (Recommended)
  3. Custom Function

1. String Concatenation

In JavaScript, the + symbol is treated as a concatenation operator that joins two strings or variables as a string.


This is the most simple and basic way to join or concatenate two strings in javascript. For Example,

console.log('Java' + 'Script'); // output JavaScript console.log(‘JavaScript’ + 6) // output JavaScript6
Code language: JavaScript (javascript)

Also, in the following code let’s join two string variables.

const language = "JS"; const type = "Tutorial"; <em>let</em> output = "Hi this is a " + language + " string " + type; console.log(output); // Hi this is a JS string Tutorial
Code language: JavaScript (javascript)

In this example, the value of two const strings is concatenated into the output string.

Example 2:

let name = "Alice"; let age = 25; let output = "Hi! The age of " + name + "is" + age + "years old"; // Hi! The age of Alice is 25 years old.
Code language: JavaScript (javascript)

This string formatting method is easy but it should not be used if you have to calculate values during formatting.

Note:- Do not use this in mathematical calculations.

For example, the following number expression produces the wrong output.

console.log("The sum of 4 + 3 is " + 4 + 3);<br>// "Sum of 4 + 3 is 43"
Code language: JavaScript (javascript)

As you can see, in the example above adding the numbers 4 + 3 gives an output of 43 instead of 7.

Because 4, and 3 are considered strings, not numbers, to properly output this type of expression you need to wrap the expression in curly braces as below.

console.log("The sum of 4 + 3 is " + (4 + 3)); // Output The sum of 4 + 3 is 7
Code language: JavaScript (javascript)

2. Template Literals

The template literals were added into the ES6, and this is the recommended way to insert variables and expressions into the strings.


Template literals can be used to create multi-line strings and insert variables and number expressions into the strings.

Instead of single quotes or double quotes we use backticks to wrap the whole string, inside these backticks we can use strings and variables.

In a template string, inside the backticks the normal text is written as it is however, to insert variables or expressions a $ sign is appended, and the actual expression is placed inside the curly braces { }.

let name = "Bob"; let role = "Wordpress Developer"; let output = `Hello! My name is ${name} and I'm a ${role}`; console.log(output); // Hello! My name is Bob and I'm a WordPress Developer
Code language: JavaScript (javascript)

Here, ${name} and ${role} acts as a placeholder and is replaced with the actual value of the variable.

Also, to insert numbers inside strings, the same method is followed starting with the dollar sign $ and placing the numbers inside the curly braces {}.

console.log(`The sum of 4 + 3 is ${4 + 3}`); // The sum of 4 + 3 i s 7
Code language: JavaScript (javascript)

You can also pass a function in the template literals similarly to variables.

// function definition function student(name, id) { return `${name} ${id}`; } console.log(`${fullName("Alice", 07)}`); // Output Alice07
Code language: JavaScript (javascript)

See Also: Table of Contents In JS

3. Custom Function

You can use custom functions to format strings in JavaScript because in JS there is no default function for that.

In this method, you have to use regular expressions to search and replace the template numbers with the arguments passed into the function.

if (!String.prototype.format) { String.prototype.format = function () { var args = arguments; // if args , then replace match with args return this.replace(/{(\d+)}/g, function (match, number) { // check if the argument is present return typeof args[number] != "undefined" ? args[number] : match; }); }; }
Code language: JavaScript (javascript)

The format() the method above searches the placeholders like {0} and {1} and replaces these with the arguments you pass into the method.

let name = "Alice" let role = "Wordpress Developer" let aString = "My name is {0}, I'm a {1}".format(name, role); console.log(aString); // My name is Alice, I'm a WordPress Developer
Code language: JavaScript (javascript)


In general, the recommended way for formatting strings in javascript is using the template strings (backticks) and for the very basic string formatting use the concatenation (+) method.

See Also: setInterval vs setTimeout JS